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关于《雾都孤儿》和查尔斯·狄更斯

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[摘 要]查尔斯·狄更斯是英国文学史上杰出的现实主义作家。《雾都孤儿》是他的代表作之一。小说描写了伦敦地层社会中贫苦儿童的悲惨生活,揭露了贫民救济所的黑暗。他所塑造的人物,在今天读来仍栩栩如生。


[关键词]查尔斯·狄更斯;《雾都孤儿》;批判现实主义者;批判现实主义

Abstract: Charles Dickens was s prominent critical the characters he created were realist in English literature, vivid even now, Oliver Twist was one of his masterpieces in reflecting the real and terrible life of London underworld.


Key Words: Charles Dickens; Oliver Twist; critical realist; critical realism


1、Charles Dickens
Mid 19th century of England between those conservative poet s and prose - writers there were a number of novelist s. They had a world of sympathy for the miseries and a strong feeling for lathe poor la2 boring masses. They cried Flout loud against social injustice but they also did not approve of violence to fight the social wrong. They had been known as critical realist s in the sense that they were strongly critical of the social reality of their time but they had never thought of overthrowing the existing social order that in this way , they could establish a new one.
These critical realist s of the mid - 19ta century were all honest people and real artist s in spite of their limitations in their general point of view on life. By exposing the social injustice and the vices of the upper class , they put their heart s into depicting the miserable existence of the common people ; they gave at ruthful picture of capitalist England of the time. They followed the fine tradition of their great literary predecessors of 18a century realism and early 19th century romanticism. They showed their warm sympathy on those people who suffered a lot .The greatest of the critical realist s was Charles Dickens. In his early years , he worked as a reporter and this experience gave him a good knowledge of the political life of England at that time and it had a far reaching effect upon his lifelong contempt for all the political institutions as practice in England. As the result of his ability to notice things of London life , a volume of stories and sketches of London street scenes , Sketches of Bozo , was published. In 1837 , his first novel Pickwick Papers appeared and established his reputation as an important writer of the time. This success was repeated again and again during the rest of his life , with the publication of some 15 novels as well as volumes of stories , t travelogues and countless sketches and essays. In his very early literary period , Dickens attacked one or more specific evils in Victorian England : debtors prison , workhouse , Yorkshire schools , capital punishment and so on. The most important of these novels was s611 one of optimism and a light and cheery tone , which was maintained , with plenty of humor and laughter. With the reactionary forces of the Middle class who were running more rampant , Dickens was more alive to the social reality and became more critical. Now , his optimistic spirit was replaced by strong feelings of depression and resentment . It was a successful period in which Dickens attained to his maturity as a great artist . The whole period was also characterized by the change and development of the great novelist artistic style. His h - ,nor and satire this time just gradually gave a point to his sentimentality , his mood of inhibition and a kind of dramatic tension.

2、Oliver Twist
Oliver Twist was Dickens’ second novel , which marked the beginning of Dickens’ literary life. It began to appear in a monthly magazine. “I had perhaps the best subject I have ever thought of , I have thrown my whole heart and soul into Oliver. ”
That it s general purpose was clear in his mind was evident f rom his later - written preface : “I wished to show , in little Oliver , the principle of Good Surviving through every adverse circumstance and t triumphing at last ”. The companions among whom he was to be t ried were the criminals of London’s under2world. The author depicted it not in a romantic mood just as his contemporary novels , but showed much miserable reality. That reality was the great and enduring strength of the book. Dickens knew it a lot by close observation , which he had already demonst rated in , had newspaper sketches of London street s and criminal court . Also , there was another reason , that is , he knew it by his own experience. He was born in a provident way ; so even when he was very young , he suffered a lot . He knew those kinds of feeling and of course he could share the solitary child’s pain , for he bewildered in those years when he hand labored hopelessly in the blacking - warehouse. As he said much later , himself might have become a little robber or a little vagabond. That period of time was so bitter and galling to this sensitive boy that many years later , when he was very successful , he could not look back upon it without tears in his eyes. Maybe it was the main reason that why he took much more attention to common people’s lives and their feelings.
3、Oliver Twist’s influence and literary value
Oliver Twist was one of the most important social novels in Dickens’ early works. Also , it was the first time that Dickens led readers into a very sad world. The description of the criminal slums of London that little Oliver lived brought Dickens a new class of serious readers interested in social reform. People started to think about social reasons for all of those criminal phenomena. And in this novel , Dickens advocates his view of world charitable person will have good recompense. Oliver Twist was famous for exposing the dark sides of people lived out that time. It exposed the hypocritical and cruelty of parish workhouse through depicting the little orphan boy Oliver Twist’s childhood in it . He gave realistic pictures of the horrible existence in workhouse. One of the important characteristics of Oliver Twist was the real and specific description of people who lived in the bottom of society. Their miserable lives , including all the details , gave the readers a real feeling : these were fictions. Also ,it was the first time that many small potatoes appeared in English literature. Dickens carried the good t radiations of realism novels since 18th century of England and also developed it . He created his unique technique and formed his own style. Dickens’ works axe very important in English literary history. They established the base of critical realism and had effect upon the development of the whole European realism novels. Oliver Twist was Charles Dickens’ first authentic novel and also was the first time that he led readers into a real but terrible life of underworld. This novel was a vivid picture and Charles Dickens was an excellent realist .
参考文献
[1]王佐良. 英国文学史[M] . 北京:商务出版社,1996.
[2]陈 挺. 狄更斯[M] . 沈阳:辽宁人民出版社,1982.
[3]罗经国. 狄更斯评论集[M] . 上海:上海译文出版社,1981.·40 · 玉溪师范学院学报


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