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广告中双关语的语用功能和运用技巧

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[Abstract] In modern society, advertisement’s influence is universal. Pun is to add more attraction, being applied as a kind of figures of speech in advertisement and deeply loved by people. Pun has many forms of expression such as pun on polysemy, homophone, hononymy, parody, illustrations and words, grammar, etc. The advertisers use brand, idiom, and phrase, etc, to form pun skillfully. From the aspect of pragmatics, pun violates the Cooperative Principle by Grice. People usually violate the maxims in four ways. The article analyses pun from the fourth way that the speaker may flout a maxim; that is, he may blatantly fail to fulfill it and to achieve some purpose. The proper use of pun in advertisement results in the effects of humor, wit, beauty, economy, warning, and even makes the product more competitive and profitable, and makes the advertisement sweet to the ear, and please both the eye and mind.
[Key words] advertisement; pun; pragmatic maxims; pragmatic function

【摘 要】当今社会,广告作为一种竞争手段无处不在,而双关语是一种广泛运用于广告创作并深受人们喜爱的修辞格。双关语的表现形式多种多样,可分为一词多义双关,同音异义双关,谐音双关,仿拟双关,插图和文字双关,语法双关等。广告商巧妙地运用品牌、成语、习语等构成双关语以增加宣传效果。但从语用学的角度去分析双关语,它违背了Grice提出的合作原则。合作原则的违反通常有四种情况,而本文主要从第四种进行分析双关语,即说话人公然不执行某一条准则,也就是说话人知道自己违反了一条准则,他还想让听话人知道他违反了一条准则。运用恰当的双关语产生了幽默、风趣、经济和警告的作用,使人享受语言的美,同时帮助厂家在激烈的竞争中立于不拜之地,获得更大收益。
【关键词】广告;双关语;语用原则;语用功能


1. Introduction

“The definition of advertisement by AMA(American Marketing Association): Advertising is the nonpersonal communication usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature about products, services of ideas by identified sponsors through the various media.[1] It is a device to arouse consumers’ attention to a commodity and induce them to use it. In modern age, people find themselves surrounded by various advertisements each day. An American writer writes: “ we find advertisement of all kinds everywhere, for example, glittering neon signs on top of high buildings and a long main streets, colorful pictures painted on buses pamphlets sent to very house, advertisement jammed between TV programs various advertisement glutting, newspaper and radio broadcast; etc.”[2] Facing so many advertisement, how to make the advertisement impressive is the main purpose of the advertisers. In order to enhance the appeal of an advertisement, advertisers pay much attention not only to such expressive devices as plates, color and the layout of a printed page, but also to the choice of words or phrases, to make an advertisement beautiful and attractive. In the practice of the advertising English, people pay more attention to pun to make the advertisement succinct, accurate and vivid and to provide rich imagination and plentiful associations for readers so as to stimulate their desire.
The frequent and wide use of figures of speech is an important characteristic of advertising English, which is an effective way to make the advertisement attractive. Among the figures, pun is loved deeply. Oxford Advanced Dictionary defines pun as “humorous use of a word that has two meanings or of different words that sound the same”.[3] A pun (also known as paronomasia) can be understood like that it is a deliberate confusion of similar-sounding words of phrases for rhetorical effect, whether humorous or serious. It leaves a deep impression on readers by its readability, wit and humor. It can satisfy the requirement of advertisement characteristics—selling power, memory value, attention value, and readability. So pun is very popular in advertisement. The article just wants to present the pragmatic function and application of pun in advertisement.

2. Types of pun in advertisement

A pun is a rhetorical device in which people use the polysemous, or homonymous relation of a language to cause a word, a sentence of a discourse to involve two things of meanings. It has several types.
2.1 Pun on Polysemy
“While different words may have the same of similar meaning, the same one word may have more than one meaning. This is what we call polysemy, and such a word is called polysemic word. Historically speaking, polysemy can be understood as the growth and development of or change in the meaning of words.”[4] Pun on polysemy is used widely, especially with the name of the product such as the following examples:
[1] “From sharp minds. Come sharp products.”[5]
The example is an advertisement for the Sharp copier. The word “sharp” praises the consumers’ brightness, but also refers to the Sharp product. The advertisement praises the consumers who are sharp to buy the product which is sharp. The vanity of the audiences is aroused and they want to use it to show their wise, and also they believe the product is really sharp.
[2] “Money doesn’t grow on the trees. But it blossoms at our branches. Lioyd Bank.”[6]
It is the slogan of Lioyd Bank. “branch” means “part of a tree growing out from the trunk”, but here it implies the division of bank”. The slogan encourages people to store their money in Lioyd Bank, and their money will be like the blooming flowers, yielding better fruits. After understanding its meaning, readers will figure it out in mind that their money will become more and more daily and daily, just like the leaves in spring.

2.2 Pun on Homonymy
“Homonymy refers to the phenomenon that words with different meanings have the same form, i.e, different words are identical in sound or spelling, or in both. When two words are identical in sound, they are homophones. When the words are identical in spelling, they are homographs. When two words are identical in both spelling and sound, they are complete homonyms.”[7] The follow instances will explain that:
[3] “ ‘VIPs’ an atomical comfort.
     Variable Impact Pressure Sole”[8]
   The advertisement of sportshoes uses the homophonic word “VIPs”. As we know, VIP usually stands for “ very important persons”, while, here, it stands for “Variable Impact Pressure Sole”. It implies if you use VIPs, you will be a VIP. The word “VIPs’ motivates the audiences’ vanity and induces them to buy the product.
[4] “Trust us. Over 5000 ears of experience.”[9]
   It is an advertisement for audiphone. The literal meaning is that the product has experienced a lot of texts. While “ears” and “years” are a pair of homophone. So it implies that the product has a long history and has high quality.
[5] “Goodbuy
Winter!
100% cotton knitwear $40”[10]
It is an advertisement for the sale of winter clothes. The advertisement seems to people that it s a good and cheap to buy cotton knitwear. But when the audiences read “goodbuy winter” together, they will understand the good use of pun. “Goodbuy winter” sounds the same as “goodbye winter”. The advertisement use homophone to show two meanings: it is a good business to buy the cotton knitwear now, and winter has passed away. Naturally, people will associate the situation happening every year that when they say goodbye to winter, the clothes will have a great discount and it is good time to buy them.
[6] “More sun and air for your sun and heir.”[11]
  The advertisement is for a bathing beach. The advertiser uses homophone skilfully, sun vs. son, and air vs. heir. The advertiser encourages people to bring their son and heir to the bathing beach to get sun and air to keep fit. Each couple hopes their son and heir will be healthy all their life. Pun makes the advertising language sound sweet, fluent and persuasive.

2.3 Pun on Parody
  “Parody is a piece of speech, writing of music that imitates the style of an author, composer, etc in an amusing and often exaggerate way.”[12] Pun on parody uses the outfit of saying, apothegm, proverb or idiom to form new meanings. English has a lot of well-known phrases, idioms and sayings. They are important part of everyday language spoken by the English speakers, and have become one of the aspects of the English culture. The advertisement designers are sharp-minded and imaginative. They change a part of the expressions and put their ideas into them to achieve sensational effect. And most of them achieve a remarkable success. The transformations are not only eye catching, but also easy to be accepted by the common, who will do according to the tradition. As the sayings of idioms have been one part of the tradition, the people will be easily persuaded by the advertisement works of this kind. So pun on parody is popular in advertisement.
[7] “A Mars a day helps you work, rest and play.”[13]
    It is the slogan of Mars chocolate company. Looking at this advertisement, people will associate it with two idioms: “An apple a day keeps the doctor away” and “ All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy”. From the meanings of the two idioms, the watchword tells people that a Mars’ chocolate a day will make you not be a dull boy (make you wise) and keep the doctor away (keep fit).
[8] “Try our sweet corn, you’ll smile from ear to ear.”[14]
    It is taken from the advertisement for a kind of sweet corn. The word “ear” has double meanings: the organ of hearing and the seed –bearing part of a cereal. Te idiom “ from ear to ear” also is a pun. One meaning is that people are satisfied with the product. The other one is that the consumers eat one ear by another. So the advertisement implies that the sweet corn is very delicious, and you will enjoy it and eating one by one. How can people refuse such delicious food?
[9] “All is well that ends well.”[15]
    This is an idiom, but here, it is taken from an advertisement of a cigarette. “End”, as a verb, means “finish”, while, as a noun, means “cigarette butt”. The sentence means that if the cigarette ends are good that the cigarette is good.

2.4 Pun on Grammar
Many advertisers use pun produced for grammar problem to attract the audiences, such as ellipsis or word with different grammar functions. If this type of pun can be used properly, it will achieve unexpected effect.
[10] “Which lager can claim to be truly German?
This can.” [16]
    It is an advertisement for Lager beer. “Can” is a modal verb. But in the advertisement, a can of beer beside it reminds people “can” has another meaning—tin. Also “Lager” refers to the name of beer. With the illustration, the whole advertisement brings a humorous effect and impresses the audiences deeply.
    The Coca-cola company also uses “can” to do their advertisement.
[11] “Coke refreshes you like no other can.” [17]
    Just like last example, “ can ” has double meanings, so the sentence can be understand like that Coke refreshes you like no other (can; tin, drink) can (refresh you). It implies their product is the best one. Of course, people like to buy the best one.
2.5 Pun on Illustration and Words
A lot of advertisement associates with illustrations and words to achieve better effect, especially on TV, because people are more easily attracted by pictures than words. The illustrations and words can help people to understand the advertisement fully. Pun in the advertisement must be connected with illustrations and words, so people can understand the implied meanings. For instances:
[12] “50% OFF.”[18]
It is a shopwindow advertisement of E-spirit exclusive shop in Shanghai from 2001 and spring festival. The illustration is a picture with six lights, three on and three off. From the illustration, people know it does not only mean a half of the lights are off, but also means the whole sale discounts 50%. The illustration and words are vivid, and attract the passers-by’ attention more easily.
[13] “Stop at two.”[19]
It is the title of an public service advertising (PSA) which the Population and community Development Association ( PCDA) of Thailand uses to advocate the couple to have children no more than two. The illustration is the photo of Wistern Churchill who formed a “V” letter with his forefinger and middle finger. The gesture “V” means victory. So people also can understand that it is a victory to have only one child. This picture is famous, so people will remember it easily. To achieve the success of their country, people may more like to control the population.

3. Pragmatic analysis of advertisement pun

From analyses above, people can understand that a pun usually uses one word in a sentence relating to double meanings, surface meaning and implicit meanings, which is the main idea the speaker wants to convey. The advertisers like to use the double meanings to produce ambiguity. While, analyzing from pragmatic maxims, it breaches Cooperative Principle. Just look at another example:
[14]You’ll go nuts for the nuts you get in Nux.[20]
In the advertisement, “go nuts” means “go to buy nuts”, here in the advertisement, it also means “go crazy” in the daily English expression. And “Nux” is the name of the product. So it means the nuts will make you crazy if you buy them in Nux. The use of pun violates the Cooperative Principle, but what is Cooperative Principle?
3.1 Cooperative Principle
“The theory of conversational implicature was originally suggested by Herbert Paul Grice, an Oxford philosopher, who later went to America.”[21] His approximation is “We might formulate a tough general principle which participants will be expected to observe namely: Make your conversational contribution such as is required, at the stage at which it occurs, by the accepted purpose of direction of the talk exchange in which you are engaged. One might label this the COOPERATIVE PRINCIPLE.”[22]
    “In order to explain further the cooperative principle, abbreviated as CP, Grice borrows from the German philosopher Immanuel Kant four categories: quantity, quality, relation and manner. That is, the CP is specified from four aspects. And the content of each category is known as maxim.
3.1.2 Quantity
a. Make your contribution as informative as is required (for the current purpose of the exchange)
b. Do not make your contribution more informative than is required”[23]
   That is to say the quantity of the information you give must suit for the requirement, no less, no more. For instance, if you go to buy one pen, but the assistant gives you two pens, he breaches the Quantity. Because he should give one pen to you that you want.
3.1.2 “Quality
a. Do not say what you believe to be false
b. Do not say that for which you lack adequate evidence”[24]
   It means that the speaker can’t tell lies but only can say that which has been proved to be right fact. However, if the speaker thinks what he says is right, but in fact it is false, he still obeys the principle. Give you an example, if someone asks you to go shopping with him, but you don’t like to, so you tell him that you have a meeting tonight. At this time, you violate Quality, for you have told lies to your friend.
3.1.3“Relation: be relevant”[25]
  That means what you say must be relevant. For example, when you are hungry, you don’t expect you partner giving you a book, but a cake, because cake is relevant to your feeling at this situation.
3.1.4 “Manner
a. Avoid obscurity of expression
b. Avoid ambiguity
c. Be brief (avoid unnecessary prolixity)
c. Be orderly”[26]
The maxim requires the words speaker used must be concise and without ambiguity. For instance:
[15] A: Will you go to Xiamen tomorrow?
B: Maybe.
In the case, B violates Manner, because his answer is ambiguous. A still can’t get the answer he wants.
After the explanation of CP, a better understanding will be made by readers on above examples, which have violated the CP. But why do the advertisers like to use pun to violate the Maxims deliberately? The answer can also be given by Grice.

3.2 Violation of the maxims
Grice thought only both speaker and listener obey the principle, could their intercourse be concordant and harmonic. While he also noticed that people didn’t always obey the principle in social activity, on the contrary, they breached it intentionally. So Grice gives four ways to explain the failure to fulfill a maxim.
“Firstly, he may quietly and unostentatiously VIOLATE a maxim; if so, in some cases he will be liable to mislead.” It means you are intentional to violate the maxim.[27] For example: If someone invites you to join in a party, but you don’t like to. Avoiding offence to him, you may say, “ sorry, I have promised Jim to go shopping”. At this time, you know you tell lies, but you have to.
“Secondly, he may OPT OUT from the operation both of the maxim and the CP; he may say, indicate, or allow it to become plain that he is unwilling to cooperate in the way the maxim requires. He may say, for example, I cannot say more; my lips are sealed.
Thirdly, he may be faced by a CLASH: he may be unable, for example, to fulfill the first maxim of Quality (Be as informative as is required) without violating the second maxim of Quality (have adequate evidence for what you say).”[28] For example:
[16] A: Where does X live?
B: Somewhere in the suburbs of the city.
The answer of B breaches the Quantity, because he provides less information that A wants to know. But if B really doesn’t know where X lives, he obeys the Quality that do not say what you lack adequate evidence; if B knows the address of B, yet he does not want to tell A, then he implicates that he doesn’t want to tell A.
“Fourthly, he may FLOUT a maxim; that is, he may BLATANTLY fail to fulfill it. On the assumption that the speaker is able to fulfill the maxim and to do so without violating another maxim (because of a clash), is not opting out, and is not, in view of the blatancy of his performance, trying to mislead, the hearer faced with a minor problem; How can his saying what he did say be reconciled with the supposition that he is observing the overall CP? This situation is one that characteristically gives rise to a conversational implicature; and when a conversational implicature is generated in this way, I say that a maxim is being EXPLOITED.”[29] Give an example:
[17] A: Where is Mary?
B: There is a blue car outside Bill’s house.
In the conversation, B breaches Quantity, but if A assumes that B is willing to cooperate with him, he will try to relate his question to B’s answer. Basing on their common sense that Mary has a blue car, and then he will understand that B is telling him that Mary is at Bill’s house.
In advertisement, the advertiser violates the cooperative principle in the fourth way to attain a certain purpose, thus making the utterance produce ambiguity. Although the advertisement disobeys the principle, but it can arouse the audiences curiosity and induce them to buy the product and at last achieve a better effect. Look at some advertisements:
[18] “You can buy Happiness.”[30]
    It is the slogan of a shampoo advertisement. The advertisement breaches the Manner Maxim—avoid ambiguity, for happiness has double meanings here: “delight” and “the name of the product”. It wants to express the meaning that if you buy Happiness, you will attain happiness. Although it breaches the Cooperative Principle, it impresses the audiences deeply and arouses their interest to have a try.
 [19] “In our country we keep animals in the forest and people in the cages.” [31]
It is the advertisement for Volvo Car Company. From the ad, people may give an assumption that they keep animals in the forest while shut themselves in the cages. But to the common sense, the phenomenon is impossible. So the advertisement breaches the Quality that you only can say what you think is right. But through the context of the advertisement, the audiences can understand the cages refer to Volvo car, and finally know the meaning of the advertisement that the Volvo Company aims at producing more and better cars for people.
 [20] “The Unique Spirit of Canada: we bottled it.
Right to the finish, its Canadian spirit stands out from the ordinary. What keeps the flavor coming. Super lightness. Supper taste. If that’s where you’d like to head, set your course for Lord Calvert Canadian.” [32]
 The example is taken from the advertisement of Lord Calvert Canadian. At the first sight of the advertisement, people would be drawn, for they wonder what’s the unique spirit of Canada. After thinking, they would find “To bottle the spirit” has two meanings here: one is to bottle the liquor; the other is to put the Canadian spirit into this liquor. The advertisement breaches Manner Maxim but arouses people’s curiosity. Pun in the advertisement has a great function.
 
4. The pragmatic function of pun in advertisement

Pun has a lot of advantages such as conciseness, wit and humor, novelty and vividness. It produces a particularly rhetorical and pragmatic effect when people use the language creatively in a specified context. The proper use can make the advertisement impressive and attractive.
4.1 Wit and humor
   Pun, the game of word, produces wit and humor effect to attract the audiences’ attention and inspires their association. In the age of rapid rhythm, advertisement with pun like a spice makes people enjoy themselves in the advertising atmosphere, and reduces their pressure in a relaxed environment.
[21] “When the wind has a bite… and you feel like a bite… then bite on a whole Nut.”[33]
    The word “bite” has several meanings: grip, food, and eat. The whole sentence means that when the strong wind hurts you and you are very hungry, just eat some Nut. After day working, people would feel tired and hungry, while the advertisement is just the situation of them. Therefore, they would be attracted to buy the product, so they will not suffer hunger after work. Also, the sentence sounds like tongue twist.
[22] “Excellent Taste!”[34]  
It is a word in an advertisement for a whiskey product—Jamson. In the advertisement, when the hero drank the Jamson whiskey that the heroine introduced to him, he said, “Excellent Taste”. Generally speaking, “taste” means “favor”, but here, another meaning is “the ability to appreciate what is beautiful”. So the advertisement means: this kind f whiskey as good flavor; the heroine has high appreciation. The advertiser uses pun to praise both the product and the consumers who choose their product. It caters for people’ vanity and induces them to buy the product.

4.2 Creativeness and originality
This is typical of advertising language. An advertisement has a high demand of diction every word playing an important role. If human emotions have to be inspired, the words, strong in expressing emotions, will be chosen. In advertisement, originality is king. A new way of sending message can set a brand apart from copycats and also-rans. So it is important to use something novel such as coinage in the advertisement to draw people’ attention. Normally, a new created word accepted by readers can enhance the freshness and attraction of the advertisement. Good advertisers use coinage to refresh the advertisement and to achieve its propagandist purpose.
[23] “Cab Fourward.”[35]
    It is an advertisement title of Ram Car produced by Doqi company. The word “fourward” sounds like “forward”. Connecting it with the picture in the advertisement, people would know why it uses ‘fourward”. Because the four doors of this kind of car could be opened from four directions. The advertiser creates the word “fourward” from “forward” to show the speciality of the car.
[24] “Catch the Raincheetah and cheat the rain.”[36]
    It is an advertisement in Toronto Daily Star. The punny word “Raincheetah”, the name of the raincoat, sounds like “raincheater” while the word “raincheater” derives from “windcheater”. The word “cheat” in the sentence makes it wonderful and let people feel that this kind of raincoat can protect the consumers well. Pun gives people impression of novelty and interest.
4.3 Satisfying people’s requirement of beauty
A good advertisement is a text from which people can appreciate the art of language, especially advertisement using pun. Pun in advertisement is orderly and antithetic that makes people feel the aesthetic modality of language. The characters of pun, such as vividness, wit and humor, pleasure people’s spirit and let them enjoy the beauty of language. For instance:
[25] “Give your hair a touch of spring.”[37]
    It is an advertisement for shampoo. The word “spring” here is very vivid and like a picture in people’ mind: after using the shampoo, the long hair becomes elastic and shining. When you stand there, your hair will go with wind. Everyone likes beauty, so the advertisement caters for people’ desire and induces them to buy the product to make them more beautiful.

4.4 Satisfying the requirement of society--Economy
With the rapid development of the society, people become busier and busier, so they require short and easy remembered advertisement to supply the message they want. But how to impress the audiences is a question. The answer is using pun. But why is pun especially favored by the advertiser? The main reasons as following:
“Firstly, advertisement is paid message, with limited space and time, so it doesn’t allow verbiage to waste the investment. Pun with double meaning has the characteristic of small carrier but plenty of connotations. So it is very economic, effective and money-saving to the advertiser.
Secondly, in modern society, people pay more and more attention to effect, and get tired of the tedious advertisement. The pun in advertisement is usually formed by short sentences. Some use the name of the product as the theme of the advertisement. Some use excellent phrases to show the specialties of the product. To the audiences, it saves their time to get the information they want.
Thirdly, usually, the audiences read or watch advertisement unintentionally and only can remember something unconsciously. So, to achieve expected propagandist effect, the advertisement must reduce the memory message. Pun is suitable for the requirement. The content is short, the form rhythmic, and the style novel, which are easily remembered and impressed people deeply.”[38]
In a word, pun uses fewer words to express full message which is the content of Economy Principle, and it usually reaches the purpose of advertisement that is arouse consumers’ attention to a commodity and induce them to use it. For instance:
   [26] “Two beer or not two beer, that’s a question.          ----Shakesbeer”[39] 
 Looking at the beer advertisement, people would associate it with the proverb “To be or knot to be, that’s a question” in Hamlet. Shakesbeer is the name of the beer, but it sounds like “Shakespeare” who is known nearly all over the world, so it is easy for people to remember the Shakesbeer. And the word said by Hamlet is also very famous, especially in western country. The sentence is short and the pattern is famous, so people will remember the product naturally.
[27] “Go well, Go Shell.”[40]
    It is an advertisement for Shell Oil Company. “Well” sounds like “where”, so it implies that go to Shell company to buy oil. Only four words are used in the advertisement, but express the meaning fully and impress people deeply. Imagine that one day, when you drive your car, suddenly, the oil is run out. So you are wondering where to go, then, of course, you will remember the words “Go well, go Shell”. So you will go to Shell at once. The slogans impress the audiences deeply and persuade them to buy the product invisibly.
 [28] “Make Time For Time.”[41]   
It is an advertisement for Time magazine. The advertisement uses the pun on homonymy of the word “time” to refer two meanings: common sense of time, and the name of he magazine. The advertisement means that read Time magazine to seize time. In the society full of competition, time is important and magazines also play an important role which people have to read to broaden their view. While Time magazine will not only broaden view, but also save your time. It satisfies people’s requirement.

4.5 Implying Warning
   Some advertisements imply warming. Pun can make the warming vivid and effective so that people can pay attention to it. For instances:
[29] “Better late than the late.”[42]
    It is a public service advertising of traffic. It derives from the proverb “Better late than never”. In the sentence, “the late” means” the dead”, and it reminds the drivers to drive slowly and carefully. The advertisement with pun here has more powerful to persuade the drivers to care their security.
Another example:
[30] “The driver is safer when the road is dry;
The road is safer when the driver is dry.”[43]
It is also an advertisement for safe driving. The excellent word is “dry” which has double meanings: without water and without drinking. It expresses if the road is dry and the driver doesn’t drink, all drivers will be safer. The antitheses and thyme of the sentence has more powerful to warm people.

4.6. Making the product more profitable and competitive
The speciality of pun is useful in advertisement, and favored by people. If a advertiser can make full use of it to satisfy people’s requirement, the product may precede others and gain the market.
[31] “A deal with us means a good deal to you.”[44]  
Here, the double meanings of “deal” are: the amount and business. The meanings of the advertisement are that: do trade with us is a good business to you; doing business with us, you will get a lot. Advertisers use pun skilful to inspire the audiences’ curiosity and attract their interest to do the deal.
[32] “Powe to influence others.”[45]
    It is an advertisement for a Hector Powe Clothing Company. They advocate that if you wear their clothes, you will have power to influence other people. Because “Powe” is like “power”. It satisfies people’s desire of power, so they like to have a try. Thus, it will bring great profit to the Powe company. Maybe people with the clothes can’t have more power, but the company has the power to influence the market.

5. Conclusion
    Advertisement is a way for the company to propaganda their product. To gain the market among the severe competition, it is important to carry out a wonderful advertisement to promote their product, and figures of speech is an effective way to achieve the purpose. Among the figures, pun is a wide and frequent approach, because it is an effective way to make the advertisement attractive, accurate, striking, vivid and forceful. Although pun violates the pragmatic maxims, it can correspond to the requirement that said by Geoffrey N.Leech, a famous British linguist, that advertising words must be vivid, conspicuous and impressive, with high readability and the force to promote sales, so it is used widely in advertisement. Pun in advertisement has many forms of expression such as pun on polysemy, homophone, hononymy, parody, illustrations and words, grammar, etc. and can result in the effects of humor, wit, beauty, economy, warning, and even makes the product more competitive and profitable. So only understand its pragmatic analysis, types and function of pun, can it be used rightly and make the advertisement sweet to the ear, and pleasing both the eye and mind.

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[14] 同[6] P51
[15] 同[7] P50
[16] 同[7] P49
[17] 同[6] P50
[18] 同[8] P75
[19] 同[8] P75
[20] 同[7] P49
[21] 姜望琪,语用学理论及应用[M],北京大学出版社,2000,P34
[22] 同[21] P34
[23] 同[21] P39
[24] 同[21] P39
[25] 同[21] P40
[26] 同[21] P40
[27] 同[21] P44
[28] 同[21] P44
[29] 同[21] P44
[30] 金井,英语广告中的双关语[Z],北京,英语通,2005/10,P50
[31] 经贸英语教研室,语用原则和广告双关语[J],长沙民政学院外语系,2005/7/28,P36
[32] Du Juan, On the Diction Characteristics of English Newspaper Advertisement [J], Journal
    of Lan Zhou University (social sciences), 2000,vol.28, P236
[33] 同[7] P50
[34] 同[30] P50
[35] 同[6] P35
[36] 王燕,英语广告双关语的语用技巧及其语用分析[J],湖南科技学院学报,2005/10,P296
[37] 同[5] P42
[38] 同[30] P50
[39] 周红,英语广告双关语的运用技巧及其语用功能[J],北京,国际关系学院学报,2005,P123
[40] 同[5] P42
[41] 王笑施,广告英语语言技巧浅析[J],北京邮电大学学报(社会科学版),2001/4,3(2),P62
[42] 同[41] P123
[43] 同[7] P50
[44] 同[39] P295
[45] 同[6] P51


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