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雅思考试阅读理解命题依据及规律

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照应关系
  照应(Reference)指用代词等语法手段表示的语义关系。英语中的照应分为3类:人称照应、指示照应和比较照应。其中较难的是分句照应(ClausalReference)。分句照应指的是某些词语的所指对象不是词或者短语,而是分句、句子、句子组合,甚至一个完整的语篇。可以用做分句照应的词语分为以下3类。
  (1)here,it,this等词汇既可用于前照应,又可用于后照应。
  (2)that,(the)above,theforegoing等只用于前照应。
  (3)as follows,thefollowing,below,thus等仅用于后照应。
  这一语言现象常常是命题点。
  Example:
   It looks as if itcame straight from the set of Star Wars. It has four-wheel drive and rises aboverocky surfaces. It lowers and raises its nose when going up and down hills. Andwhen it comes to a river, it turns amphibious: two hydrojets power it along byblasting water under its body. There is room for two passengers and a driver,who sit inside a glass bubble operating electronic, aircraft-type controls. Avehicle so daring on land and water needs windscreen wipers—but it doesn’t haveany. Water molecules are disintegrated on the screen’s surface by ultrasonicsensors.
  雅思阅读难句100句
  01. That sex ratio will befavored which maximizes the number of descendants an individual will have andhence the number of gene copiestransmitted.
  那种性别比例能在最大程度上增加一个个体所能拥有的后代数量,并因此能在最大程度上增加所传递到后代身上去的基因复制品的数量。
  02. (This is) A desire to throw over reality a light that never was might give awayabruptly to the desire on the part of what we might consider anovelist-scientist to record exactly and concretely the structure and texture ofa flower.
  (这是一种)照亮现实的欲望,此欲望从来就不会唐突的取代后面的那种欲望,后者是我们可以将其部分的理解为一个兼任小说加和科学家的人想要去准确并具体的记录下一朵花的结构和文理的那种意义上的欲望。
   03.Hardy's weakness derived from his apparent inability to control the comings andgoings of these divergent impulses and from his unwillingness to cultivate andsustain the energetic and riskyones.
  哈代的缺陷一方面缘起于他的某种明显的无能,无法控制好那结不尽相同的创作冲动的穿梭往来;另一方面缘起于他不愿意去培养和维持那些富于生机活力和风险性强的创作冲动。


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